Mirror by the Dell,
Autumn leaves they came and fell,
Water still and well.
South Korea has blazing summers and freezing winters. These Hanok were made from the natural resources of earth, stone, and wood in the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910). Clay tiles were used for the roof, (afforded by nobility) and thatch was used for roof by common folk.
Here is a Hanok diagram: Hanok
Plans and sections of Hanok from Architeutis project Elastico:
The traditional Hanok design has curved corners cantilevered over the porch areas for rain protection and a raised foundation for drainage. There are cool wooden floors, “maru”, for resting in summer heat as well as “ondol” stone floors which are heated by fire or stoves underneath to stay warm in the icy winters. There are tiled roofs and paper sliding doors to provide sun and wind shields.
According to this psychrometric chart, Korea has very hot and humid summers paired with very cold winters. It is a country with all four seasons as well as two rainy seasons. Some of the best design strategies to combat this extreme climate are listed by Climate Consultant as: ceiling fans (for hot days), and internal heat gain (from equipment, lights, and occupants) from tightly-sealed and well-insulated homes for heat in bitter winters. I utilize these strategies in my design (focusing on the extreme heat and cold of South Korea).
For passive design purposes, concentration was placed on ways to heat and insulate in winter and cool down through ventilation in summer. In addition the sun was also a factor of both seasonal designs.
Here is the proposed design primer: Seasonal Diagrams
Sophany, Ouch. “A study of traditional vernacular architecture in Korean” Architectural Division of NRICH, South Korea
Our homes mediate climate in large part through their materiality. As in Torben Dahl’s Climate and Architecture, there are four types of architecture driven climates: tent, cabin, stone house, and cave. The progression of climate stability is shown from a tent climate (that changes temperature rapidly to match its surroundings) to a cave climate (which fluctuates much slower, over the period of a year). The types that are more stable in temperature, are more embedded in the Earth.
Humans are not the only architects on Earth; animals must also make shelter. For example, termites were praised by Dahl for their expert mound molding that provides advanced ventilation by thermal lift up through the surface shafts and keeps coolness lower towards the bottom. Plenty of other species of animals also live in homes made from the ground. Animal burrows can be inhabited by foxes, cats, wolves, lions, and many others. Burrows provide most of the same essential necessities our houses do like “constant temperature and humidity, protection from predators” (as mentioned in a webpage about Natural Resources). One additional thing these underground homes provide that ours do not is “refuge during fires”. Perhaps one can say that the ground itself may be one of the most ancient forms of insulation.
One instance of ancient underground architecture is the Cappadocian Cave homes located in present-day Turkey. According to the National Geographic, this World Heritage site once hid persecuted Christians fleeing Rome. The “fairytale landscape of cones, pillars, pinnacles, mushrooms, and chimneys” of soft rock were solidified from the ash of volcanic eruptions. Thus “human hands” carved into the rock to create a “network of human-created caves” with tunnels connecting towns and structures with “as many as eight different stories hidden underground”. It is truly a marvel that is still inhabited today.
*Pictured above is the city of Cappadocian Caves, photograph by Paule Seux (National Geographic)
In conclusion, rock and earth has always been an important mediator of indoor and outdoor climate. Addington in “Contingent Behaviors” notes the “building as container of the body’s environment”. Architecture indeed has an important purpose of stability in creating shelter, which means maintaining an environment of livable temperature. And while humans may be adaptable to many climates, architecture serves as the “third skin” according to Dahl (clothing being the second). Our homes and architectural structures mediate stability for not only our comfort but also our continued survival.
Dahl, Climate and Architecture, pp. 54-89.
Addington, “Contingent Behaviors”, in Energies, pp. 12-17
So much of our lives revolves around managing heat. From our bodies to our homes, we shape both the internal and external environment to suit our needs. As in Lechner’s Heating, Cooling, and Lighting, there are forms of progressive barriers that promote our thermal comfort like clothing, canopy beds, and the walls of our buildings. Even our skin is a fascinating envelope of heat that works like a “biological machine” as Lechner said to dissipate waste heat and control heat loss.
As described in a previous blog post, we should not strive to build the same well-controlled, air conditioned, and heated box to fit in every environment, but work towards discovering a diverse range of ways of passive design strategies to naturally reap rewards of comfort from what the environment provides. Thus, there is value in looking at our original building methods. According to Daniels from The Technology of Ecological Building, buildings of the past were characterized by “small windows” (to reduce heat loss), “building masses with high storage capabilities”, and “low standards for heating and sanitary systems” (requiring less energy and complications). In the example of materiality, the building masses of natural materials that stored the heat so well in colder seasons did not overdo the temperature in the hotter seasons. Also heating by tile stoves could heat multiple rooms through a system of shafts and wood combustion did not produce damaging products released into the environment.
One interesting example of an old structure is the Water Castle in Glucksburg. It created an unintended climate from building a water moat around it. Although Daniels says it’s original purpose was “for safety and protection”, the moat produced many facets of comfort. It reflected more sunlight towards windows, while the surrounding air was made cooler by the water’s surface (reducing summer’s antagonizing heat), and retains heat somewhat at night because water cools slowly (due to it’s high retention of thermal energy). Thus looking at instances of purely natural features of comfort with passive construction shows it’s use and ease.
In a modern mindset of creating evermore progressive barriers to the wilds of the outside (with advanced air-conditioning and heating), the treasures of potential passive energy sources from wind, water, and sun, are left unharnessed. Why should we employ such effort in extracting and transporting fuel from below the surface, when energy is all around us? In accordance with this week’s workshop on reading the psychrometric chart for comfort using different design strategies, there was a lot of comparisons between passive and active designs. Although the highest hitter in terms of comfort could be found in air conditioning and heating, much of the energy used was unnecessary when looking at simpler passive designs that could produce a bulk of the same effect in a more direct and succinct way. For example matching wind protection designs for a structure in a very windy environment better targets the problem than simply using the default method of turning up the heat. Thus, in these respects, we should use more passive energy designs to partake in the stream of energy that already flows around us -using the system instead of creating barriers to it.
Week 7 Workshop Exercise
San Salvador, capital of El Salvador
Understanding the Chart
1. The dewpoint is 52 degrees Fahrenheit.
2. In this situation the humidity ratio would change by .11. To calculate this ratio change you would first calculate the humidity ratio of the outside and inside conditions and then find the difference by subtraction.
3. The relative humidity would be about 40%.
1. San Salvador, located in El Salvador of Central America, is a consistently hot-and-humid climate city.
2. San Salvador is a sunny city, being close to the equator. Thus by the tilt of the Earth, it is biased towards warm weather. It’s tropical weather lends towards little temperature change between seasons.
3. The temperature falls in the comfort zone most often in September (similarly from July to November).
4. The most effective passive design strategies in expanding the comfort zone are: sun shading of windows, natural ventilation cooling, dehumidification only, and fan-forced ventilation cooling; while the least effective passive design strategies are: wind protection of outdoor spaces (it’s not a very windy city), humidification only, and passive solar direct gain low mass.
5. Yes, it is possible to achieve a high percentage of comfort in San Salvador’s comfort using only passive design strategies. The biggest temperature and humidity design challenges derive from San Salvador’s variability in rainy and dry seasons, because the design strategies have to adjust to each mode of comfort.